HOW IS CATARACT SURGERY DONE? WHAT ARE THE RISKS?
Cataract surgery is the process of surgically removing the natural intraocular lens that has lost its transparency and replacing it with an artificial and transparent intraocular lens. The purpose of the operation is to eliminate the vision loss due to cataract.
A healthy eye lens is transparent. However, after cataract formation, it loses its transparency over time. As a result, there is an increasing loss of vision. In summary, cataract is the opacity of the intraocular lens and loss of transparency. Cataract surgery is the only solution to permanently treating this condition.
CATARACT SURGERY DETAILS
Although there are different techniques in cataract surgery applications, there is a common purpose for all of them. Cataract operation is an eye surgery microsurgery. All operations are performed under the microscope with the help of very small instruments.
The average duration of the operation is between 10-15 minutes, depending on the hardness of the cataract in the intraocular lens. The general application stages of the operation are as follows:
- Before the operation, drops are applied to the eye to enlarge the pupil. At this stage, if deemed appropriate by the doctor, the patient may be given a sedative.
- The patient is taken to the operating room and is allowed to lie on the operating bed. After a sterile drape is covered over and around the eye, anesthetic drops are applied to the eye so that the patient does not feel anything during the operation. The patient is asked to constantly look at a fixed light directly above the eye.
- With small incisions made from the outside of the eye, the natural eye lens with cataract is removed from the eye with various techniques. Afterwards, the artificial and transparent intraocular lens, which is determined according to the doctor’s recommendation and the patient’s choice, is placed in the patient’s eye. Some types of operations require stitches, while others do not. At the end of the operation, the eye is closed with a protective tape.
WHICH LENS ARE USED IN THE OPERATION?
During cataract surgery, 5 different types of intraocular lenses can be applied.
This type of lens is also known as a fixed focus lens. Clear vision is in question for either far or near vision. It is applied to most people for distance vision clarity. Patients have to use glasses after the operation for close vision and intermediate distances.
They allow focusing both near and far. For medium distances, the need for glasses may arise.
Trifocal Lenses (Smart Lenses)
With trifocal lenses, patients can obtain clear vision at both near, far and intermediate viewing distances. Thus, the need for glasses is completely eliminated after the operation. Smart lenses can work like a natural intraocular lens and transmit the light coming into the eye from all distances to the retina.
Apart from all these lenses that can be applied to cataract patients, Toric lenses and Add-on (complementary lens) intraocular lens applications can also be applied to patients who require different treatments.
Toric lenses are intraocular lenses that are applied to people who have cataracts but also have astigmatism problems.
Add-on lenses are lenses that enable patients who have had cataract surgery before and who have a single-focal lens placed in the eye as a second lens, allowing them to see all three foci clearly.
Like any surgical procedure, cataract surgery has certain risks. Since the operation is microsurgical, the success of the operation is directly related to the selection of the appropriate method for the appropriate patient, the experience of the ophthalmologist, the quality of the material and the sterilization of the operating room environment.
If there is no reason to reduce vision other than cataract in the eye, an eye that has undergone cataract surgery regains its former vision.
During cataract surgery, the lens placed in the eye can be adjusted to see far or near clearly. Thus, if the eye of the operated person is reset for distance, he can see the distance clearly without glasses, but he needs to use glasses for near. If the eye is made nearsighted with the lens inserted in the surgery, that person will be able to see near without glasses, but the need for glasses for distance will arise. If a multifocal lens is preferred, myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism problems can be solved with a single lens.
No, surgery can be performed at any stage of the cataract, as soon as the cataract forms and the vision begins to decrease.
Yes, there is a higher probability of problems in the surgery of very advanced cataracts. In addition, the operation time is longer in advanced cataracts.
For cataract surgery, narcosis (general anesthesia) is not applied except for pediatric and infant patients. In cataract surgery, different types of local anesthesia are used for adult patients. By injecting around the eye, the eye is numbed and numbed, and eye movements are also eliminated.
If your eye is found suitable after the examination, laser surgery can be performed.
Lazy eye does not improve with cataract surgery. There are different treatment methods for lazy eye.